VMware安装Gentoo记录

#gentoo #linux #vmware

**根据官方安装文档(http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml),整理安装过程执行的脚本命令如下。

安装环境为vmware9,VM设置内存为2G,CPU设置为1个双核,设置光盘从Gentoo Livecd ISO文件启动。 **

echo ==================启动LiveCD gentoo-nofb

echo ==================设置网路 net-setup eth0 ifconfig eth0 192.168.7.123/24 route add default gw 192.168.7.1 echo nameserver 192.168.7.1 > /etc/resolv.conf

echo ==================启动SSH并修改密码 time /etc/init.d/sshd start passwd

echo ==================下载stage3 fdisk /dev/sda /dev/sda1 primary(32M) /dev/sda2 primary(512M) /dev/sda3 Extend /dev/sda5 Logic (逻辑分区1)

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 * 2048 10487807 5242880 83 Linux /dev/sda2 10487808 20973567 5242880 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/sda3 20973568 41943039 10484736 5 Extended /dev/sda5 20975616 31461375 5242880 83 Linux

mke2fs /dev/sda1 mke2fs -j /dev/sda3 mkswap /dev/sda2 && swapon /dev/sda2(创建并激活交换分区)

echo ==================下载stage3 mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/gentoo mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot

echo ==================下载stage3 cd /mnt/gentoo wget http://mirrors.xmu.edu.cn/gentoo/releases/amd64/current-stage3/stage3-amd64-20121210.tar.bz2 time tar xjpf stage3*

echo ==================下载portage cd /mnt/gentoo/usr wget http://mirrors.xmu.edu.cn/gentoo/releases/snapshots/current/portage-latest.tar.bz2 time tar xjf portage-lat*

echo ==================建立默认下载站点 mirrorselect -i -o » /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf mirrorselect -i -r -o » /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf

echo ==================切换系统 echo 挂载/proc和/dev文件系统 echo 将/proc文件系统挂载到/mnt/gentoo/proc,这样chroot后的环境里安装时也可以获取内核提供的相关信息,然后以bind方式挂载/dev文件系统。 cd / mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/ chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash env-update && source /etc/profile

Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache…

export PS1=”(chroot) $PS1”

echo ==================更新Portage树 emerge –sync

echo ==================切换Profile,我只用gnome eselect profile list eselect profile set 4

echo ==================设定时区 ls /usr/share/zoneinfo cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime (以上海为例)

echo ==================设定主机名和域名 cd /etc echo “127.0.0.1 center.home center localhost” > hosts sed -i -e ‘s/HOSTNAME.*/HOSTNAME=”center”/’ conf.d/hostname hostname center (使用指定的主机名并检查) hostname -f

echo ==================下载内核 cd /usr/portage/distfiles/ wget http://mirrors.xmu.edu.cn/gentoo/distfiles/linux-3.6.tar.bz2 wget http://mirrors.xmu.edu.cn/gentoo/distfiles/genpatches-3.6-11.base.tar.bz2 wget http://mirrors.xmu.edu.cn/gentoo/distfiles/genpatches-3.6-11.extras.tar.bz2

echo ==================配置内核,安装一个内核源码包(通常为gentoo-sources),配置、编译并拷贝arch/x86_64/boot/bzImage文件到/boot。 time emerge gentoo-sources cd /usr/src/linux make menuconfig(配置内核) #—————————— VMware需要修改配置(参考来源:http://chengchow.blog.51cto.com/1642666/925657) –>Device Drivers–>SCSI device support–><>SCSI disk support –>Device Drivers–>SCSI device support–>SCSI low-level drivers–> <>BusLogic SCI support–>FlashPoint support –>Device Drivers–>Fusion MPT device support–>所有的 –>Device Drivers–>USB support–><>USB Mass Storage support –>Device Drivers–>Networking support–>Ethernet driver support(NEW)–> <>AMD PCnet32 PCI support

–>Processor type and features–>Processor family–>Pentium M –>File System下选择(根据你自己的需要取舍) EXT2文件系统支持(Second extended fs support) EXT3文件系统支持 JFS文件系统支持 ReiserFS文件系统支持 XFS文件系统支持 备注:内核系统编译主要是靠硬件知识支持,具体安装可以通过 lspci 或者 lspci | less来查看自己系统的硬件信息。 #—————————— time make -j2(所花的时间很大程度上决定于你所选的选项) make modules_install cp arch/x86_64/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel

echo ==================配置系统,编辑/etc/fstab,用实际的分区名代替BOOT、ROOT和SWAP cd /etc nano -w fstab

echo ==================设置网卡 cd /etc/conf.d echo ‘config_eth0=( “192.168.7.123/24” )’ » net echo ‘routes_eth0=( “default via 192.168.7.1” )’ » net rc-update add net.eth0 default #————–如果以上这句执行失败,先请执行下面两句 cd /etc/init.d ln -s net.lo net.eth0 #————— emerge dhcpcd

echo ==================设置SSHD为默认启动级别,以便重启后通过ssh重新连接到新机器 rc-update add sshd default

echo ==================设置root密码 passwd

echo ==================设置时区 nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock TIMEZONE=”Asia/Shanghai”

echo ==================检查系统配置 nano -w /etc/rc.conf nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps

echo ==================安装系统工具,一个系统日志如syslog-ng和一个cron守护进程如vixie-cron,并把它们添加到默认运行级别。 time emerge syslog-ng vixie-cron rc-update add syslog-ng default rc-update add vixie-cron default

echo ==================配置引导程序 time emerge grub nano -w /boot/grub/grub.conf #——————- default 0 timeout 10

title Gentoo root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/kernel root=/dev/sda5

grub grub>root (hd0,0) grub>setup (hd0) grub>quit

echo ==================重启 exit umount /mnt/gentoo/dev /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo

reboot

echo ==================重新登录,清理文件 rm /portage-latest.tar.bz2* rm /stage3-.tar.bz2

echo ==================最后涉及的配置,在/etc/make.conf中定义SYNC变量和GENTOO_MIRRORS变量,或者也可以使用mirrorselect emerge mirrorselect mirrorselect -i -o » /etc/make.conf mirrorselect -i -r -o » /etc/make.conf echo ‘MAKEOPTS=”-j3”’ » /etc/make.conf (通常,一个较好的值为处理器数加一,以便不会浪费任何一个cpu)

echo ==================Portage列出软件包和它们的USE标记。作为例子,让我们禁用ipv6和fortran,并启用unicode emerge -vpe world echo ‘USE=”nptl nptlonly -ipv6 -fortran unicode”’ » /etc/make.conf

echo ==================定义语言环境 cd /etc nano -w locale.gen locale-gen

echo ==================为make.conf作最后的修改 nano -w make.conf CFLAGS=”-O2 -march=x86_64 -pipe”(在CFLAGS中将-march设为你的CPU类型) FEATURES=”ccache”(添加下面一行) ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86” (只有清楚自己在干什么才添加这一行) #echo 参考http://www.gentoo.org/doc/zh_cn/gcc-upgrading.xml

echo ==================升级软件包 emerge ccache emerge -vpuD –newuse world (好好看一看软件包列表和它们的USE标记,有阻止的包就先卸载,然后启动漫长的过程) time emerge -vuD –newuse world((重)编译了79个软件包) emerge –oneshot libtool(重编译libtool以避免一些潜在的问题) dispatch-conf(更新配置文件,确保不要让dispatch-conf更新你配置好的文件) time perl-cleaner all(如果升级了perl,应该执行perl-cleaner脚本) python-updater(如果升级了python的主要软件包,应该执行python-updater脚本)

echo ==================添加人员 adduser -g users -G lp,wheel,audio,cdrom,portage,cron -m geln passwd geln